Today we will talk about UNHRC, History and its full form? And will give full information about what its functions are. The United Nations Human Rights Commission is created to protect human rights, and it works worldwide. And it has an office in each member country, lives in each country, protects human rights and creates awareness. These days human rights are being violated in every country. Today the United National Human Rights Council is needed to stop this. You have complete information about it.
What is UNHRC
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights worldwide. The Council has 47 members elected for staggered three-year terms on a regional group basis. The headquarters of the Council is in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Council investigates allegations of breaches of human rights in United Nations member states. It addresses thematic human rights issues such as –
- freedom of association and assembly,
- freedom of expression,
- freedom of belief and religion,
- women’s rights,
- LGBT rights,
- the rights of racial and ethnic minorities.
The Council was established by the United Nations General Assembly on 15 March 2006 to replace the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR, herein CHR), which had been strongly criticised for allowing countries with poor human rights records to be members. The Council works closely with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and engages the United Nations special procedures.
Today UNHCR is functioning in additional than 47 member countries. It works to protect human rights, and it works worldwide.
|UNHRC||United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC)|
|Formation||15 March 2006|
|Parent Organization||United Nations General Assembly|
The UNHRC was created under the auspices of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) to replace the UN Commission on Humans rights because it was under severe criticism as its members were primary human rights abusers themselves. The United Nations Human Rights Council works in coordination with the High Commissioner’s Office for Human Rights (OHCHR).
Structure of the United Nations Human Rights Council
The UN General Assembly elects the members who will constitute the 47 members of the UNHRC. The Council members serve for three years and shall not be eligible for immediate re-election after two consecutive terms.
These seats are distributed among the United Nations regional groups as follows:
The UNGA has the power to suspend the rights of any Human Rights Council member if it is found to have constantly been committing human rights violations during its tenure. The suspension comes into effect with a ⅔ majority by the General Assembly.
Regular sessions of the UNHRC are held during the months of March, June and September.
A special session can be held at any time should the UNHRC deem it necessary or at the request of the member states. As of May 2020, 28 special sessions have been held.
For the smooth functioning of the United Nations Human Rights Council, the following subsidiary bodies have been established which directly report to the council:
Universal Periodic Review Working Group
The Universal Periodic Review Working Group monitors the progress review of all 193 UN members. The basis of a new mechanism is on reports from different sources, among which is the contribution from NGOs. Each nation’s human rights progression will be examined during a three-and-a-half-hour debate.
The first cycle of review took place between 2008 and 2011, the second between 2012 and 2016. The third cycle began in 2017 and is expected to be completed in 2021
In September 2007, the UNHRC created an Advisory Committee to provide expert advice on various human rights issues. The composition of the Committee is as follows:
|3||Latin America and the Caribbean||3|
This task was earlier done by the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and the Protection of Human Rights. It conducts studies on discriminatory practices based on race, religion, language, ethnicity etc.
Find the list of Important Organisations and their Headquarters by visiting the linked article.
Established in 18 June 2007, the Complaints Procedure helps in reporting of consistent and reliable reporting of human rights violations as well as that of other fundamental freedoms from around the world.
It was two working groups to supplement the Complaint Procedure:
- Working Group on Communications (WGC): Consists of five experts designated by the Advisory Committee from its members, selected from each regional group. Serving for three years, the experts determine whether a complaint deserves investigation.
- Working Group on Situations (WGS): Once the WGC decides a human rights complaint must be investigated, it is passed to this group. The WGS meets twice a year to examine the replies of the concerned states and the situations that are already before the UNHRC under the complaint procedure.
Q. What is Full form of UNHRC?
Ans. United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC).
Q. How many countries are in the United Nations Human Rights Council?
Ans. There are 47 members of the UNHRC.
Q. Who is the head of the UNHRC?
Ans. Nazhat Shameem is the President of the United Nations Human Rights Council.